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Notcias Webmail Atendimento. Jiddu Krishnamurti notes and governments own. Downturns can be times of opportunity, when it is important to retain a proactive approach, never losing any opportunity to innovate and communicate with customers and suppliers. Companies must lower their bottom lines The Thinkers 50 US version. It is easy to imagine Ram Charan as a boxing coach. The story of corporate America and corporate anywhere is littered with people who, after a sequence of bad results, get reassigned to the trashcan.
These people worked hard to get to where they were. They were successful, often spectacularly so. They were intelligent too, and they often had lots of vision. However, vision and inspiration are never enough. The people at the top need business acumen; failure results from having someone with the wrong type of good reputation, say as a dealmaker or someone unable to set priorities. He never puts CEO failure down to a pithy sound bite.
The successful company has good strong leadership, but leadership should be nurtured throughout the organization. There should be a leadership pipeline within the organization. There must also be good communications. Everyone within the organization has a vital role to play. They should all feel valued, but they should never be allowed to forget their interdependence. Everyone should be aware of the big picture and their part in it. He cites Wal-Mart founder Sam Walton as a good role model. The customer should never be forgotten. He returned to the U. In he returned to Harvard and joined the Business School faculty.
The technological or digital writing was on the wall. Technological innovation was no longer an option but an imperative for survival. They went in at the low end of the market pool and thereby gained entrance to the bigger pool. They eventually displaced the competition from the high end of the market.
Christensen characterizes these products as disruptive technologies. So the message was stark: innovate or die. Innovation could be tricky. Christensen highlighted that many large exist- The Thinkers 50 US version. They paid lip service to innovation, but anything that might upset established certainties was likely to be dismissed.
Innovating companies need creative people. This causes its own set of problems for both established companies and start-ups. The brightest and best may not want to be truly creative and produce breakthrough solutions for someone else. They may prefer to wait until they can go it alone and reap their own harvest. Retaining free spirits within the corporate structure provides another dilemma for those wanting to innovate. Some have responded in novel ways by establishing in-house incubators or promoting the establishment of spin-out companies.
He has since moved on to a discussion of strategy in the age of innovation. Strategists seem stuck in a time warp of the present. They laud successful companies like Dell and Cisco Systems. History teaches the transience of corporate success. Instead of preaching emulation, strategists should identify what allows the Dells and the Cisco Systems to succeed.
They should stop identifying what works and begin to ask and answer why it works. This is important throughout the corporate world. However, the advent of new forms of biotechnology, especially connected with exploitation of the human genome, may reduce these costs. The quest for competitive advantage can be frustrating: it is like playing hide-and-seek in thick fog. So is the pursuit of competitive advantage worth the candle? Strategists can play along too.
He studied business at Stanford and stayed on at the faculty after graduating. Having taught at Stanford for seven years, he returned to his hometown to establish what he called a business research laboratory. This involves a probe into how each company is managed and the role of its CEO.
His research has resulted in four books, including Good to Great Good to Great emerged from a simple question: Can a good company become a great company? Collins started with a data set of over 1, companies but whittled this down to 11 that had consistently outperformed their rivals. These companies had things in common, but not what conventional B-school wisdom said they should have. Collins 31 discipline. This was not the discipline of the martinet, but the good type — self-discipline.
The companies rewarded self-disciplined people who thought in a self-disciplined way. Collins says he was initially a leadership skeptic: it was too simple to pin great success or grim failure on the lapels of a leader. However, this is what his data was telling him. None of this is cast in stone, and a level 4 leader can improve. Collins cites Lou Gerstner as an example: a level 4 manager at R.febaguzo.cf
The world’s top management gurus in 2015
Reynolds who became a level 5 manager at IBM — though not immediately. Level 5 people have an almost heroic commitment to the company and its mission. The company gets all their emotions — there is no room or energy for self-promotion. This does not mean that level 5 managers are shrinking violets.
They simply put the company before, well, everything — family, friends, and probably their health. But they are never alone. They should have a good team around them. This is their responsibility. Part of the mettle of the level 5 manager is deciding who should be on the bus and where they should sit.
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There are other qualities that set the great apart from the good. This indicates a preference for publicly quoted companies. A level 5 leader must also have the respect of other business and industry players, such as competitors. Respect, of course, has nothing to do with liking. They should have an impact on their company — maybe their industry — that outlasts them. Those companies that chose their chief executives from inside the organization did better than those preferring outsiders. He suggested that outsiders are ignorant of the company they are entering at the top, having no gestation or apprenticeship period.
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Good CEOs should be neither too humble nor too proud. They should not be too charismatic. They should ideally stay in the job for a minimum of seven years, as it is not possible to have any impact in a lesser time. These 18 companies are united by widespread brand recognition, are world-famous, but have been in business for more than 50 years.
He worked on the faculty there as a professor of Business Management and Organizational Behavior. He is an author, speaker, and success coach. It stayed on the New York Times best-seller chart for an amazing weeks and is estimated to have sold in excess of 12 million copies in 32 languages. It was not surprising that it sold so well since its title alone promised success: it was similar to The Ten Commandments.
This has the resonance of a call to daily prayer. Rather than stick with words, he has sought to teach and to coach as well. In it merged with training company Franklin Quest to form Franklin Covey. It also is heavily involved in retailing its particular success messages and products, with stores in the U. Covey is not afraid to boast.
It operates in over 90 countries. So what is the Stephen Covey philosophy? It is a truism to say that it is all just common sense. There is no theory. I am embarrassed when people talk about the Covey Habits. It has been said that much of his thinking is really spiritual messages dressed in pinstripes. He has been awarded numerous distinctions. Since The 7 Habits he has written The 8th Habit Naturally Dr.
Covey is a committed family man. He has inculcated the values he holds dear into his children. There he gained a Ph. He has also consulted to numerous international corporations, many of which use his works as part of their training programs. His teaching methods have been used in many schools, from primary to adult education.
He has received several awards and honorary degrees. He has even had a minor asteroid named in his honor. De Bono has dedicated his life to researching thought and how humans perceive and make sense of information. The role of creativity is central. He has sought a wide audience for his views, although some psychologists have dismissed this as populism. In a stable world, human beings apply standard solutions to standard situations based on tools like analysis, judgment and argument. A common response to a problem has been to identify the cause and remove it.
Traditional thinking is all about what is. Future thinking will need to be about what can be.
We may need to solve problems not by removing the cause but by designing the way forward even if the cause remains in place. Creativity is often called for. It is accompanied by the squandering of intellectual energy and the nurturing of egos. Meetings are unproductive because of muddled thinking. They generate polarized self-righteousness, as expressed in the title. This leads to creativity-killing defensiveness. In New Thinking for the New Millennium De Bono describes how the technological advances of the second millennium have not been matched by changes in the way we think.
He also argues for some new approaches to the use of language, implying that human beings can happily deal with a higher order of communication. One of his most recent contributions has been The Six Value Medals Success no longer comes through analyzing the past but in creating and molding the future. Each party often believes the only way is to pursue their values to the end in a zero-sum game — we win and you lose. De Bono claims his theories have been used by companies and governments around the world. He also claims that he has received reports of from 20 to 90 percent less time being spent in meetings by people who have followed his methods.
He was born in Houston, Texas. His mother was a stockbroker.
He had an early interest in computers. Another early interest was making money, and he found that he could combine the two successfully. His parents had a medical career in mind for young Michael. He went to the University of Texas at Austin, but he pursued his ever more lucrative business from his dormitory room.
The concept of customized PCs gave him a business idea. Customers could get their very own machine or system, catering to their needs with no unnecessary or underused extras. If computers could be built to order, it would mean the middleman in his various retail guises could be cut out of the deal. Inventory could be kept low if the assembly was carried out to order on a just-in-time basis. High velocity would mean substantial returns, even with low margins.
This direct method had been tried before, as Dell admits, but only to cater to large business accounts. Dell subsequently dropped out of college. His company started making its own computers. In Dell went international, opening a subsidiary in the U. It has since established manufacturing facilities throughout the world. The company was included in the Fortune in By it was the number one computer systems provider by market share. The advent of the Internet was embraced eagerly by Dell. In ordering online was introduced.
In Dell Computer went public.
The new century has seen a decline in PC sales and margins worldwide, not just for Dell. The company has responded by putting more emphasis on servers, workstations, and computer technology services. It has also entered the consumer electronics industry. For Michael Dell, customers are important. He has claimed that he spends 40 percent of his time with customers.
A lot of the rest goes into designing improved ways to listen to customers. It is more important for a company to study its customers than its competitors, he advocates. Dell has created a revolutionary business model. In he put many of his thoughts about business into a book — Direct from Dell. These included his belief in vertical integration in the computer industry. An important part of communicating is listening and acting quickly. Errors are thus kept to a minimum. Dell Inc. In it launched Dell Recycle, an initiative to help users of any computer equipment, regardless of manufacturer, either to recycle it or to donate it to charity.
Patrick Dixon is the chairman of Global Change Ltd. He is a rare bird among the ranks of management thinkers: he is a physician. He has achieved fame by taking the pulse of today and attempting to diagnose the shape of tomorrow. The success of this book prompted Dixon to produce more volumes on topical issues. This coincided with invitations from multinationals to lecture on a wide range of issues, from corporate governance to the need for better market research. The world of the future will be: The Thinkers 50 US version.
His website contains the full text of six of his books for free download, as well as other materials such as videos. In many ways this is an application of direct methods of sales. He feels pleasure in giving away his intellectual capital. His most recent book, Building a Better Business , is not just another self-help manual. Dixon has a philosophical and spiritual message. He sees businesses, large and small, as facing a motivational crisis. He received an M. He was vice president for training and development at S-E Bank; he also served as chairman of Consultus AB, a Stockholm-based consulting company.
Most people in business know or should know about capital. In general, the term refers to hard resources, such as monetary wealth or inventories. In the s, many writers focused on social capital. The following decade saw the birth and nurturing of the concept of intellectual capital, the collective brainpower of an organization. So, before it can be accepted as real capital, a valuation has to be put on it. This book provided the means by which intellectual capital could be calculated into hard numbers.
Edvinsson believes that it represents the start of a compounded valuation. Too much stress has historically been set on traditional measuring methods, he feels. Cost accounting often gives a distorted, if not misleading, picture of the fortunes or failings of a company. It is hard to assess intellectual capital, which is why the subject needs rigorous study.
For example, the loss of a key technician may even show up as a gain, depending on how it is evaluated! Edvinsson uses a nautical analogy to express this. Traditional methods provide the equivalent of latitude readings. Intellectual capital assessment gives a more complete picture. One of the new roles of leadership is to protect and nurture intellectual capital.
Because this kind of capital is human, it can be easily destroyed or rendered less valuable by bad management practices. This can happen when the working environment is human-averse, even outright hostile to humans. Factors that can impact intellectual capital negatively are excessively long work hours or intensely stressful work tasks. Edvinsson argues that, when such issues are uncovered, managerial defensiveness can be harmful. Instead, The Thinkers 50 US version. Organizations should welcome new perspectives and non-traditional solutions. These can include using part-time workers to relieve stress levels, as well as utilizing the skills of retired people.
Managers, he believes, should often adopt a more federal structure with less emphasis on hierarchical command and control. Thus, discomfort could, in the end, be healthy for all. Accepting the existence and realizing the potential of intellectual capital is not just an issue for commercial organizations. Nations, regions, and cities also have intellectual capital.
Some utilize their human capital better than others. Obviously an important way of utilizing brainpower is through education, but the education system often needs to be re-thought so that it produces optimum results for all. For example, Edvinsson talks about intellectual tourism, attracting visitors to come to centers of educational and technical excellence in order to learn and acquire knowledge.
In his interest in electronics propelled him to found, with his friend Paul Allen, a company for writing software for microelectronic devices called Microsoft. Gates and Allen retained the right to use and develop the system themselves. Gates had a mission, to put a personal computer using Microsoft software and programming languages on every desk and in every home. IBM felt that the PC was, at most, a fad or a toy. The personal computer market mushroomed throughout the s and s and with it grew the success of Microsoft. Bill Gates likes to portray himself as something of a techno-prophet, but neither he nor Microsoft has a sure Midas touch.
Once he realized his mistake, he made a high-speed U-turn. The result has included Microsoft Outlook. Gates decided in to reorganize the company under the banner of VV2 Vision Version 2. It was split into eight autonomous units. Bill Gates does not belong to any university faculty. He does not consult or coach. Neither does he lecture. He is not a hermit and his thoughts on management have been made widely available through his two books, The Road Ahead and Business the Speed of Thought His involvement with his company and with the industry as a whole has always been transparent.
People could see some of what he was doing at Microsoft. He has always had quite a lot to say about strategy. In the manner of management gurus, he has isolated six things that a company should do to achieve success in any market. Its assets are its highly skilled and creative workers. It is held together by a digital nervous system DNS of e-mail, allowing instant connectivity.
This also allowed Gates a high degree of supervision when he was active as CEO. He could supervise and comment upon even the smallest detail of the work of individual employees. There are lots of opportunities for brainstorming, sharing ideas, and generally interacting in as informal a way as possible. Gates has always sought to inject the organization with vital components. He does not preach, except to his own employees. He does not intimate that what works or has worked for Microsoft can be translated into success elsewhere.
However, his very success inevitably means that what he does at Microsoft is an object of study and emulation by others. He attended the University of Toronto, earning a history degree in It is hard to categorize what Gladwell does. He has written with apparent expertise on a plethora of subjects.
He may be described as an observer of social trends or as a describer of culture in the act of creation. His scope involves the worlds of science, business, and their intersections with people. His celebrity so far rests on two books. The Tipping Point explores the theme that little things mean a lot. Gladwell looks for the fulcrum, that point at which loose ends become a critical mass, magically converting the ordinary into the extraordinary, the little into the many, the normal into the notable.
How this happens often revolves around the character of unique human beings. For Gladwell, the most important tipping point factor is the right context. An often vital contextual element is the physical environment we inhabit. If it is congested, untidy, and unkempt, it can have a serious impact on our individual behavior and on the receptiveness of individuals to stimuli. They adapt ideas so that they are acceptable by the majority, who are, as a rule, more risk-averse and intuitively conservative. This is the way social epidemics work. This kind of thinking often evolves into split-second decision-making, but he argues that this is not to be considered random or spontaneous.
While snap judgment may be suspect — and analysis is considered preferable — we resort to the former only when there is an acute shortage of that luxurious but necessary commodity for analysis: time. Gladwell presents examples in which snap judgments prove eventually correct; conversely, he shows how extended analysis and dissection can ultimately trigger failures.
A key point for Gladwell: Humans are hopeless at analyzing their own responses. They are also less than competent at analyzing the responses of others. He suggests that many marketing errors occur because too much weight is given to data from the wrong types of test, such as blind tasting. Both books are written in a narrative and episodic style, illustrated with quotations and examples from the real world. In November we learned that Blink was to become a movie.
Gladwell will be involved as an adviser and possible screenwriter. His initial academic background was in sociology, and he earned his Ph. He also has a background in social sciences, an interest that began at the University of East Anglia in the U. He left the academic world to be a manager at Polygram, returning to teaching at Henley Management College. Ultimately, he joined the British Broadcasting Corporation as director of human resources and internal communications. Both men have produced much material in their own right, but it is for their collaborative work and co-authorship that they are best known.
One of these, The Character of a Corporation , continues the work done on corporate culture by Charles Handy. It contains insights derived from their work as consultants. As The Thinkers 50 US version. They all have their positive and negative aspects. Take the networked culture: the good side of this is that there are good communications between people in the organization. As a result of such behavior in a bad network culture, employees soon become defensive, cliques form, and work devolves into a civil war. In time, the workplace atmosphere becomes toxic. Happily, these two authors do not issue a clarion call for leaders to attempt to become superheroes.
The good leader must try to be human, they assert; he or she should also be transparent, unafraid to show blind sides or weak spots. This is the best way to inspire others. Moreover, the inspiration transaction has to take place on the individual, one-to-one level. Organizations cannot do anything without dedicated, high-performing individuals.
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Good leaders recognize that everyone they lead is, at heart, an individual human being. It is thus perilous to view an array of individuals as an anonymous collective. This action must be informed by solid experience. An experienced actor knows the appropriateness of every action, no matter how small. Similarly, good leaders know how to manage people and events; they know how and when to be tough, but they know that toughness on its own is never a solution. They know when to temper toughness with empathy. This range of judgments and actions lies within the abilities of most people.
They just have to be uniquely and genuinely themselves. He was born in Stockton, California. He studied psychology at Amherst College, Massachusetts. He then embarked on postgraduate work at Harvard, earning a masters degree and a doctorate in clinical psychology. He later taught on the Harvard faculty. For many years he was a regular contributor to the New York Times on psychology and mental health issues. These included student aggression, depression, and the lack of empathy among students for co-learners and teachers.
He worked out a theory of emotional intelligence, based on extensive research. The results were published in Emotional Intelligence It was a necessary skill for anyone working within an organization and alongside others on a daily basis. The existence of emotional issues within the workplace had been ignored. Goleman stated that emotions were needed by all, but especially by leaders.
Those holding senior executive positions were usually well endowed with traditional rational intelligence or IQ. What could make them stand apart from other managers was utilization of emotional intelligence. Goleman felt that this could be achieved fairly easily, as emotional intelligence could be acquired, maybe after some application.
There had been a lot of talk about leadership styles but not much hard data. In fact, rather than an individual displaying one particular leadership trait, as had been common in the past, Goleman argued that the successful leader would have to be able to The Thinkers 50 US version. Human emotions are not easily pigeonholed, so the model is far from set in cement.
Emotional Intelligence has been translated into 33 languages; Working with Emotional Intelligence into Many organizations such as American Express have started to pay more attention to emotional competence issues. The U. His grandfather used to gather together informal groups of people — adults and children — under the spreading boughs of a banyan tree in his home village in southern India.
There they would discuss issues of common interest. After earning his Ph. Apart from his teaching commitments, he works widely as a consultant. Many organizations think this is all there is to strategy. It is important, but it is not the only set of issues. More vital are the other two boxes: the past, which has to The Thinkers 50 US version. The need for organizations to actively unlearn and divest themselves of useless and hindering baggage is important. It is only when they achieve a partial tabula rasa that they can start learning about the world afresh and how they can shape their futures within it.
Box One is manage the present; Box Two is selectively forget the past; and Box Three is create the future. How do you create the future and simultaneously selectively forget the past? Strategy is really about creating the future while managing the present. All share one thing — potential. The West may have many technical advantages, but it does not have all the answers. VG has highlighted the success of organizations in his native India in creating what he and his collaborator Anil Gupta call a social ecology.
They single out Nucor Steel, citing the intimacy and shared visions between management and workers. Modern Marketing Management looked at the implication of modern marketing strategies on India. It assessed these in the context of the opening up of the Indian economy and the gradual, though slow, improvement in living standards.
VG believes that globalization is here to stay — it cannot be wished away. It has taken over from the world of state-sponsored business. Breakthroughs in information technology and telecommunications have made global connectivity an everyday reality. Thinking and acting globally are no longer options: they are prerequisites. This provides many opportunities. All industries are now global. All businesses, no matter what their core competencies, must be knowledge businesses. VG proposes four essential actions to maximize existing and potential global opportunities.
Instead, they must also focus on organizational structure. Human resource management must be about managing human beings with a multitude of talents and fears. The successful company has to remember this if it is to retain the best people. This means they — Have a sense of identity — Can get inspired and feel passionate about things, including their work — Can join the team or stand on the sidelines Gratton believes that successful companies should have souls as well.
The two central points to a corporate soul are commitment and trust. Employees must be encouraged to build deeper trust and exercise greater commitment: neither can be commanded out of thin air. They can be nurtured only in an environment of reciprocity. The book gives practical advice about making reality out of theory. It does this through a series of steps to be adopted to implement the living strategy.
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There are also references to companies like HP and GlaxoSmithKline that are pursuing living strategies. In The Democratic Enterprise , Gratton describes how to build a company based on choice and commitment, where people want to work because it gives them more than just a paycheck. Creating such a business is not easy. The starting point is recognizing that the individuals are bigger than their assigned roles.
Companies should allow employees more choice about how, where, and even when they work. This leads to greater commitment.
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Federal Reserve Board from until He was born in New York City. He studied economics at New York University, gaining a Ph. He has also been an economic adviser to a number of public and private bodies, including the editorial board of Time magazine. Although this could have been as serious as the infamous crash of , one of the reasons it was not is generally considered to be the action of the Federal Reserve in pumping liquidity into the market. In the next decade it experienced unrivalled years of successive growth. Once he had set his course, no bluster from businessmen or politicians distracted him.
There were voices raised against his perceived monetary conservatism, especially when the U. The economy should not be provoked The Thinkers 50 US version. The Dow went down by two percentage points. It is fruitless to calculate how much equity value was wiped out by those two words. It took Genghis Khan far longer to wreak equivalent havoc. But Greenspan was only speaking candidly about stock prices that seemed to be entering a stratosphere of unreality. It is an open secret that he was not too uncomfortable at leaving his position and that he wanted to leave earlier.
Greenspan has not had time to write down his thoughts on economics, or on anything else. Numerous books have been written about him though. He knows the impact that his utterances, whether in print or speech, have on U. He is aware that, like anyone associated with a powerful institution, it is not so much what he says as what he does not say. Every statement, no matter how banal or unrelated, is devoured and analyzed by economists, stock analysts, journalists, business pundits, and politicians.
The same process is often applied to what lies between the lines. Behind the economist playing dice with the world economy, if not with the universe, appears to be a man of great integrity. Andy Grove was born in Budapest, Hungary, in He lost half his hearing when he was four and also contracted scarlet fever, which left him with a weak heart. He emigrated to America in the wake of the crushing of the Hungarian Revolution by Soviet tanks in When they set up the latter company in , Grove joined them as employee number four.
He became president of the company in and CEO in At Intel he oversaw the move away from semiconductor memory towards a microprocessor on a single chip. This culminated in the development in of the Intel More chip-based microprocessors followed. He holds several patents on semiconductor and computer technology applications. The defensively titled Only the Paranoid Survive has been even more successful. This is a warts-and-all appraisal of the highs and lows of Intel, its successes, its failures, and how the company and its boss have learned from them.
Business success contains the seeds of its own destruction. The more successful you are, the more people want a chunk of your business, and then another and then another until there is nothing left. These require fundamental changes in strategy, technology, and organization.
SIPs can be caused by the technological developments of competitors or changes in regulations. The good manager has to be able to recognize them when they happen; better still to anticipate them. One SIP outlined in detail by Grove was the chaos that ensued after a minor technical fault was found in its Pentium processor in late Another situation occurred when Intel became aware that Japanese manufacturers were able to make better and cheaper memory chips than Intel.
Grove responded, but it took Intel three years and a lot of money to regain its competitive advantage. This was a side of his life which he had avoided talking about until comparatively recently. He earned his Ph. That was where he met and got to know C.
He liked teaching but was afraid of becoming a Monday morning quarterback of the management world. He yearned to roll up his sleeves and get involved in the real business world. He felt a near-evangelical destiny to help companies — and so help everyone else. He left academia, establishing Strategos in These include numerous articles, some of which have won awards, and books such as Competing for the Future written with C.
Prahalad , and Leading the Revolution His style is deliberately anecdotal, illustrating points with clear examples. Central to his thinking are the concepts of industry foresight, strategic intent, and the recognition of core competencies. Many companies are locked in the past. They may be employing out-of-date technologies and work practices. They may be pursuing growth and competitiveness by a constant, and maybe doomed, process of downsizing accompanied by slashing costs left, right, and center. They may also be locked in competitive The Thinkers 50 US version.
According to Hamel, the past must be forgotten in favor of the future and a strategic intent. Strategic intent is bigger and broader than just strategy. He gives an example: John F. A lot of hurdles had to be cleared, but the intention became a goal, a Holy Grail, that focused minds. A strategic intent may seem like folly, but it is achievable. A company can determine what is fantasy and what is realizable by referring to their core competencies.
Instead of shooting revolutionaries, as in the past, they should harness their ideas and energies. Revolutionaries may even have gray hair — or maybe none at all. He was brought up in the genteel poverty of an Anglican parsonage in a still-rural part of County Kildare. The prospect of a posting to Liberia caused Handy to leave Shell in favor of a position as professor of business management in the newly founded London Business School.
Many people faced this future. Some critics said that he had only put forward old and accepted ideas in a new way. It was only when Handy parachuted out of the world of secure employment that his talents as a writer on management and much else blossomed. In The Age of Unreason he proposed the Shamrock organization as a business model. Many have tied the symbol to his Irish background. The shamrock has long been powerful in the Anglican Church of Ireland because of its apocryphal use by St.
Patrick as a symbol of the Holy Trinity. This leaf is shrinking in size. The second leaf con- The Thinkers 50 US version. Its contributors to the organization were vital, but they were outsiders. In the third leaf were portfolio workers as well as temporary workers and part-timers.
They contributed much, but they could never be considered part of the organization. They frequently worked for a number of disparate organizations. The latter were the large organizations, the mega-corporations, an analogy he pursued in the autobiographical The Elephant and the Flea When he writes about management Handy is never prescriptive. He thinks it is a fallacy to believe that there is one, correct style of management.
The partisans of Zeus he compares to those belonging to a clublike organization. The partisans of Apollo follow a rank culture, found in bureaucracies and large organizations. Followers of Athena believe in a taskbased culture, often working in teams, while the Dionysians are bigger than any organization to which they might belong. No culture is better than the others. Some are simply better suited to certain contexts. Reading Charles Handy is like having a conversation in a leafy vicarage on a Sunday afternoon. Handy directs the discussion but not in a domineering way.
His contributions are peppered with opinionated and frequently amusing asides. His comments are made in a deferentially certain manner. Handy does not see himself as a management guru, but as a social philosopher. Getting richer and richer, and bigger and bigger, has become a substitute for not believing in what we are doing. He has always had much to say frequently critical about education. People will have to craft their own futures, he says, and he helps those who try. Handy was involved in the development of the The Thinkers 50 US version. He holds a masters degree in mechanical engineering from Delft University and a Ph.
He also worked in an Amsterdam factory. He was a senior psychologist with IBM, which provided him with a rich reservoir of data. Cultural studies have been around for a long time, but nobody had bothered to apply them to the world of management. They were also uncertainty averse. He put this down to values inherited from the Roman Empire, political centralization, and an all-pervasive legal system. Individualism was strong in the developed world; collectivism strong in developing countries; masculinity was high in Japan and Germanic countries; femininity high in Nordic nations and the Netherlands.
Uncertainty aversion was high in Japan and German-speaking cultures, but low in English-speaking, Nordic, and Chinese countries. Long-term orientations were common in East Asian countries. Hofstede distinguishes between national and organizational cultures and says the two are separate. National cultures are based on values, organizational cultures on practices. Different organizational cultures are found in one country.
Where an organization stands is often determined by what industry it is in. Cross-cultural management is based on handling both national and organizational cultures at the same time. It is probably best to accept the given dimensions and deal with their positive aspects. The need for cross-cultural management, whether of organizations, markets, or brands, has been made much more acute by globalization.
The spread of the English language may appear to be homogenizing the world, but this is a delusion. Her background is in sociology.
15. Alexander Osterwalder & Yves Pigneur
She was a fellow of the Harvard Law School before gaining a tenured professorship in business at Yale. She is the author of numerous books and articles and also has her own consultancy and research company, Goodmeasure, based in Boston. She says that consulting helps to keep her creative and allows her to apply what she learns to real-life situations.
She is also a frequent guest lecturer and speaker. Men and Women of the Corporation examined, among other things, how the corporate workplace was dominated by male-held stereotypes. Women were still an exotic species in middle and top management. Their rarity made them targets of male prejudice and ignorance. In the s, her interests broadened to include the phenomenon of change in organizations and its impact on members and the communities where they operated.
Corporate America was entering a period of profound transformation to the post-entrepreneurial society. To survive, organizations would have to change their structures and behavior. The new corporate environment would be dom- The Thinkers 50 US version. The successful managers would be business athletes. They would carry their ideas by their arguments and personalities. They would co-operate with colleagues.
They would possess a portfolio of talents that could be plugged in anywhere. Their reputation would be beyond reproach. Like the best superstars, they would be quite humble, even cuddly. These were condensed into case studies not a surprising format, perhaps, given where she works.
She examined how the business world was evolving in the information age. The new strategist should be like the director of a play. A co-operative spirit that values teamwork over hierarchy is the best, maybe the only approach. Kanter is also interested in the impact of the Internet and global connectivity on wider society.
Although she is never shy about prophesying, she admits that her prognostications may be no more than wishful thinking. The Internet has a potential for great good and universal harm. It can be good not only for business but also for communities, breaking down barriers of distance and The Thinkers 50 US version. Reality can become a virtual world peopled with virtual personalities, none of whom would have any responsibilities.
The potential for both outcomes exists. It is up to humans to decide which one they want. They should then embody those standards and put processes in place to attain success. His background is in electrical engineering. He received bachelors and masters degrees from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and a doctorate in organizational research from Cornell. Throughout the s he pioneered the concept of activity-based costing ABC , which looks particularly at the place of overhead and indirect costs to a business.
ABC was not intended to be simple. It involves taking a whole new approach to activities and the constituents that comprise them. Many companies have drawn back from fully implementing it, preferring to stay with their old tried-andtested methods. Other support services, including software providers, have stepped in with products.
Among the The Thinkers 50 US version. It discovered that the cost of some important components was a whopping 30 times higher than had previously been calculated and costed. This led to greater reliance on outsourcing of production. Many felt that it was being driven by the short-term demands of the stock market and institutional investors.
Kaplan and Norton believe the balanced scorecard approach would help companies identify what they must do to remain important players in the future. It will help companies turn strategy into targets and show them how goals can be achieved. At the same time it produces goals and The Thinkers 50 US version. Kaplan and Norton came together again to produce a survey of the balanced scorecard in action in The Strategy-Focused Organization He studied economics at Amsterdam University and then received an M.
He subsequently studied psychoanalysis at the Canadian Psychoanalytic Institute for seven years. He is the author of over 20 books and consults widely. It leads to an attitude akin to bereavement following a catastrophe or a massacre.