Electrical machines

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Use the basic principles of electromechanical energy conversion to analyse the energy conversion process within electric machines. K1, K3, S1 3. Design, construct and assess the performance of simple electrical energy conversion systems.

The Diagnosing of Troubles in Electrical Machines | Nature

K1, K3, S1 4. Analyse electrical energy conversion systems both independently and collaboratively in a laboratory setting. K1, K3, S1, S2 5. Appreciate and apply safe practices in an environment that may contain potential electrical hazards. K6, S1 6.

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Collect and analyse experimental data, interpret results, formulate conclusions and generate laboratory reports. K1, K2, S1, A2 7. Use computer simulation to analyse electrical energy conversion systems. K1, K2, S1. Swinburne Engineering Competencies for this Unit of Study This Unit of Study will contribute to you attaining the following Swinburne Engineering Competencies: K1 Basic Science: Proficiently applies concepts, theories and techniques of the relevant natural and physical sciences.

We can also express it in electrical degrees or many slots. Short pitched winding are those in which the coil span is less than the pole pitch. These winding are also called as short-chorded winding.

Types of Electrical Machines

The efficiency of a three-phase induction motor is less than three-phase transformer because three-phase induction motor is like a rotating transformer and because of the rotating nature of induction motor there is friction and winding losses in it. Three phase transformer is a static device; therefore, there are no rotational losses. The air gap between the pole pieces and the armature is kept very small because of the following reasons:.

The commutation of the DC machine must be as ideal as possible for having smoother output voltage. For good commutation, the flux density in the air gap must decrease gradually from maximum value under the center of the pole to zero. In the case of the generator, the series winding takes the full load current so, it requires very few turns to produce the necessary magnetic field, and therefore the series field winding has low resistance.

But in the case of shunt winding the shunt resistance has full load voltage across it and requires a large number of turns to limit the current in it; therefore, the shunt field windings has high resistance. The device which converts the alternating induced emf of a generator to the DC emf is called Commutator.

In the case of the motor, it produces unidirectional torque.


What is an electrical machine?

An electromechanical device that converts electrical energy into mechanical energy is called an electric motor. Almost all the motors operate by the interaction between the magnetic field and current carrying conductors to generate force. When a current carrying conductor is placed in an external magnetic field perpendicular to the conductor, the conductor experiences a perpendicular force to itself and the external magnetic field. The main principle behind the production of mechanical force is the interaction between the electric current and magnetic field. To find the direction of the force experienced on a conductor can find out by the right-hand rule for the force.

AC motors are electric motors that are driven by an alternating current. It consists of two parts an outside stationary stator and inside the rotor. The outer stators have coils that are supplied by an alternating current to produce a rotating magnetic field and inside rotor is attached by output shaft, and the torque is provided to it by the rotating field. The machine that transforms electrical energy into mechanical energy in the form of rotation is called DC motor. Its movement is produced by the physical behavior of the electromagnetism.

The magnetic field used to generate movement is produced by the inductors inside them, or we can say that DC motors are mechanically commutated electric motors that are driven by Direct Current DC. It performs very well on AC because in case of AC the current in both the field and the armature alternates in synchronism manner and hence, the resulting mechanical force occurs in the constant direction of rotation.

Slip speed is the difference between the synchronous speed and the actual speed of the rotor. The formula for Slip is:. Iron loss is the sum of hysteresis loss Ph and eddy current loss Pe. This type of loss mainly occurs in the magnetic core of the transformer. The loss which takes place in the primary and secondary winding of the transformer because of the winding resistance is called the Copper loss or I 2 R loss. The losses that occur in insulating materials, that is, in the transformer oil and the solid insulation of transformer are known as a dielectric loss. The Open-Circuit test and Short-Circuit test are performed to determine the circuit constant, efficiency and regulation of a transformer, without loading the transformer.

The power consumption of these loads is very less. JavaTpoint offers too many high quality services. Mail us on hr javatpoint. Please mail your requirement at hr javatpoint. Duration: 1 week to 2 week.

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    These transformers are not costly. These transformers are smaller in size. The direction of current through the conductor under N pole is out of the paper and the direction of current under S pole is into the paper. So if we apply Flemings Left Hand Rule under N pole, we can see that the direction of force is downwards. Similarly if we apply Flemings Left Hand Rule under S pole, we can see that the direction of force is upwards.

    This downwards and upwards force will rotate the armature and thus the motor rotates. This rotating armature cuts the field and according to Faradays Laws of Electromagnetic Induction and EMF will be generated inside the armature which opposes the applied voltage. IA watts i. RA This high current may damage the motor.

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    So we use starters to limit the starting current within safe limits to protect the motor. DC Motors are classified into Series, Shunt and Compound motors depending upon the connection of field windings. The figure above shows a DC series motor. Here the field winding is connected in series with the armature winding. The series field winding will have low resistance. Series motor have high starting torque, dangerously high speed at no load.

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    These motors are used in electric locomotives, rolling mills, cranes, hoists, valve operation etc. The figure above shows a DC shunt motor. Here the field winding is connected in shunt parallel with the armature winding. The shunt field winding will have high resistance. Shunt motor have medium torque, constant speed throughout. These motors are used in lathes, vacuum cleaners, compressors, reciprocating pumps, textile mills etc.

    The figure above shows a DC compound motor. Here the motor consist of two field windings, one series winding and one shunt parallel winding. The shunt field winding will have high resistance and series winding will have low resistance. Compound motor have high starting torque and varying speed within limits. These motors are used in rolling mills, stamping machines, rotary presses, door lifts, pressure blowers, shearing mills etc. The working principle behind three phase induction motor is Faradays Law of Electromagnetic Induction.

    An induction motor consist of 2 main parts : Stator — It is the stationary part. The three phase supply is given to the stator. It contains several slots to which the three phase windings are wound. The 3 phase windings are wound for desired number of poles. Squirrel Cage rotors have copper or aluminium bars placed in the form of cylinder which are shorted at ends by end rings. The entire rotor resembles the shape of squirrel cage and hence the name. Wound Rotor has three phase star connected windings. These are used in high torque applications.

    When three phase supply is given to stator, it creates a rotating magnetic field. The direction of induced EMF will be to oppose the cause. That is to minimize the change in flux. So the rotor will begin to rotate in the direction of magnetic field. The rotor is of squirrel cage type as shown below. A single phase induction motor is not self-starting as there is no rotating magnetic field.

    Electrical Machines – 1 kW

    To make rotating magnetic field and to make it self-starting and additional winding called auxiliary winding also called starting winding is placed on the stator. The starting winding has high resistance and low reactance. The main winding has low resistance and high inductive reactance. So the current through these 2 windings will be 90 degree out of phase, resulting in rotating magnetic field. During starting the centrifugal switch will be ON and both the windings will be connected to the supply.

    The 2 windings will create rotating magnetic field and the motor starts to rotate. Now the motor runs on main winding. Single phase induction motors are used in fans, blowers, wind pressure, conveyer, toys and small fans.