Aquatic Biodiversity Conservation and Ecosystem Services

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Community Reviews. Showing Rating details. All Languages. More filters. Sort order. Melkamu Andargie marked it as to-read Dec 05, There are no discussion topics on this book yet. About Shin-ichi Nakano. Shin-ichi Nakano. Books by Shin-ichi Nakano. Trivia About Aquatic Biodivers No trivia or quizzes yet. Welcome back. Chainsaw Operator's Manual. Michael Viney. Freshwater Fisheries Ecology. John F. Garik Gutman. Guarding the Goldfields. Brereton Greenhous. The Mekong. Ian Charles Campbell. Coastal Hazards. Charles W. Global Warming. Shuzo Nishioka.

Landscape Ecology for Sustainable Environment and Culture.

Table from Aquatic Biodiversity Conservation and Ecosystem Services - Semantic Scholar

Bojie Fu. Landslide Ecology. Lawrence R. Groundwater and Subsurface Environments. Makoto Taniguchi. Conserving Africa's Mega-Diversity in the Anthropocene. Joris P. Mountains, Climate and Biodiversity. Carina Hoorn. Primates of Gashaka. Caroline Ross. Coral Reef Science. Hajime Kayanne. Oceans and Marine Resources in a Changing Climate. Roger Griffis.


Ecological Connectivity among Tropical Coastal Ecosystems. Ivan Nagelkerken. Jeanne C. Mark Everard. Protection of the Three Poles. Falk Huettmann. Desert Lake. Mandy Martin. Ocean Pulse. John T. Ruth H. Community Seed Banks. Ronnie Vernooy. Fish Population Dynamics, Monitoring, and Management. Ichiro Aoki. Community Action for Conservation. Luciana Porter-Bolland. Lake Biwa: Interactions between Nature and People. Hiroya Kawanabe.

Ecosystem Services: A short film by Media students developed under the CMPA Project

Biodiversity Hotspots. Frank E. Meiobenthos in the Sub-equatorial Pacific Abyss. Teresa Radziejewska. Ancient Water Technologies. Gary John Brierley. Taking Stock of Nature. Anna Lawrence. Chandrakasan Sivaperuman. Descriptive Taxonomy. Mark F. Restoration of Coastal Dunes.

Juan B. All communities will be impacted by these changes.

In order to develop effective adaptation measures, we first need to understand the adaptive capacity of Canada's biophysical systems; we need to know where, when and how to respond, and be able to monitor and report on changes over time. A focus on implementing adaptive measures for priority areas and species of concern allows Canada to begin addressing the most pressing climate change impacts on biodiversity and enhancing ecosystem resiliency while recognizing that more needs to be done.

To meet this target, governments and stakeholders across Canada will need to work collaboratively to identify the key vulnerabilities of ecological systems and biodiversity to climate change and better understand and facilitate the capacity of key areas and species to adapt to the most pressing impacts. Activities by a variety of organizations are underway. Efforts to assess and monitor ocean acidification are being undertaken by various academic organizations and non-government organizations.

Under its Aquatic Climate Change Adaptation Services Program , Fisheries and Oceans Canada is conducting a series of aquatic basin-scale assessments that, among other things, will consider both ecosystem and socio-economic climate impacts, with obvious implications for biodiversity. Through the Climate Change Adaptation Program , Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada is supporting Aboriginal and northern communities to address risks and challenges posed by climate change impacts and to become more resilient.

The Canadian Forest Service's Forest Change Initiative , when complete, will include a tracking system document past trends and future projections of forest change across Canada for a range of indicators; an adaptation toolkit including maps, decision-support systems, syntheses of information and adaptation options, to support forest management in a changing climate; and an integrated assessment of the implications of climate change on Canada's forests and forest sector.

The Canadian Council of Forest Ministers Climate Change Task Force has developed a suite of reports and guidebooks to help guide adaptation of the forest sector. In June , Natural Resources Canada published a new science assessment, Canada in a Changing Climate - Sector Perspectives on Impacts and Adaptation which includes a chapter on biodiversity and protected areas.

Provincial and territorial governments are taking action on adaptation. BC, Ontario, Quebec, and the Territories have released stand-alone adaptation strategies; others are in development. Alberta has assessed both risks and opportunities related to the changing climate and is using this information to take strategic action.

Some municipalities are demonstrating leadership in adaptation planning. Toronto and Vancouver, for instance, have adaptation strategies in place. Monitoring and reporting on changes in biodiversity over time using a variety of tracking mechanisms will be important for identifying adverse trends as a basis for developing, implementing and evaluating the effectiveness of adaptation measures. Adaptive capacity : The ability of biophysical and socio-economic systems to adapt to changing circumstances on an ongoing basis.

Adaptation measures : Actions that respond to actual or potential changes in biodiversity resulting from climate change. These can include activities by institutions, governments, business or the public to respond to current or projected impacts. Vulnerability : The degree to which an ecosystem or a socio-economic system a populated area, for example is susceptible to adverse impacts of climate change. Vulnerability is a function of many factors, including the nature of the impacts, the degree to which the system is exposed, its sensitivity to change, and its resilience, or ability to absorb the impact.

The indicators proposed for this target rely on the cooperation of all jurisdictions to review and report progress. Ongoing or recently completed reports relevant to the first indicator include the joint federal, provincial, territorial Ecosystem Status and Trends Reports. The second indicator contains multiple measures, including the number and extent of plans completed, and the number and extent of plans implemented.

Sustainability of timber harvest. Forests are essential to the long term well-being of Canada's communities, economy, and environment. Continued progress on sustainable forest management SFM is important to Canada, for several reasons. These include ensuring that Canada's forests continue to provide species habitat along with a range of ecosystem services including air and water filtration and carbon sequestration, particularly in the face of ecological challenges such as climate change.

Sustainably managed forests provide significant economic benefits and are important to rural economies and livelihoods. In addition, domestic and international consumers increasingly expect that forest products will come from sustainably managed forests, and our commitment to sustainable forest management allows Canada to access markets that would otherwise be unavailable. Canada has a strong record of managing its forests sustainably but we need to build on that record in order to realize the full range of economic, environmental, and social benefits from our forests.

This target for Canada is linked with the global Aichi Targets 4, 5 and 7. As a world leader in sustainable forest management, Canada has taken major steps to promote SFM and will continue to do so. The federal government has invested significantly in programs which lay the groundwork for a greener and more sustainable future for the forest sector, and will continue to support the emergence of transformative technologies. Provinces and territories, which are largely responsible for managing Canada's forests, including harvesting and renewal, are taking ongoing steps to strengthen management practices and regulations.

Each province and territory sets an annual allowable cut based on the sustainable growth rate of a forest area, while considering economic, social and ecological factors including biodiversity. The federal government and others will continue to provide science-based knowledge to manage the risks and minimize the impact of forest resource development, including through the production of the National Forest Inventory which incorporates new economic and biophysical information on Canada's forests.

These and other measures position Canada well to make progress on SFM by Sustainable forest management SFM : Management that maintains and enhances the long-term health of forest ecosystems for the benefit of all living things while providing environmental, economic, social, and cultural opportunities for present and future generations. Canadian Council of Forest Ministers, Canada is well-positioned to report on progress toward SFM with a comprehensive, science-based framework of indicators that is broadly supported by Canadian stakeholders and closely aligned with internationally-agreed frameworks of indicators for measuring progress toward SFM.

The National Framework of Criteria and Indicators of Sustainable Forest Management is used as the basis for national and international reporting and includes 6 criteria and 46 indicators that describe a range of environmental, economic, social and cultural values. No single indicator can accurately portray progress toward sustainability. Using the CCFM criteria and indicators framework to report on progress towards this target will reduce Canada's reporting burden and increase the consistency of information among a number of reporting products.

Agricultural production benefits from the ecosystem services biodiversity provides, such as nutrient cycling, soil formation, water purification and pollination. At the same time, agricultural working landscapes can support biodiversity, providing important habitat for wildlife in Canada. Agricultural areas in Canada often contain many different types of landscapes, including cropland, pastures, grasslands, forests, wetlands and water bodies, including many undisturbed natural areas. Over the past 20 years there has been a decline in the capacity of agricultural lands to support the habitat needs of species, due in large part to the conversion of natural areas to cropland and agricultural intensification on existing farmland, as well as increased risk of nutrient contamination.

Improving biodiversity on agricultural lands is key to sustaining natural systems, maintaining water quality and quantity, supporting pollinators, improving wildlife habitat and connectivity, and making agro-ecosystems better able to recover and adapt to environmental stresses such as drought. This target for Canada is linked with the global Aichi Targets 5 and 7. Meeting this target will involve continued improvement of the management of agricultural landscapes at a number of levels.

At the farm level, Canada's farmers can implement practices that increase diversity on their farm such as planting shelterbelts and windbreaks and the use of riparian buffers, and integrating practices like crop rotation, strip cropping and agroforestry which also benefit production. Municipal and Provincial governments can influence biodiversity through land use planning in the broader agricultural landscape while responding to ongoing pressures from agricultural landscape conversion, urban encroachment, transportation, industry and other uses in these landscapes that impact biodiversity.

The federal government can continue to promote biodiversity conservation and foster better opportunities for farmers and all Canadians through agricultural research and innovation. At the same time, industry can continue to develop and champion agro-environmental technologies and practices that support productivity and biodiversity — such as the practices recognized by the Canadian Cattleman's Association's annual Environmental Stewardship Award. Agricultural working landscapes : Land used for crops, pasture, and livestock; the adjacent uncultivated land that supports other vegetation and wildlife; and the associated atmosphere, the underlying soils, groundwater, and drainage networks.

The first indicator for this target, Wildlife habitat capacity on agricultural land , provides a multi-species assessment of broad-scale trends in the capacity of the Canadian agricultural landscape to provide suitable habitat for populations of terrestrial vertebrates. It does not cover flora, soil or invertebrates. Data for this indicator are gathered from the Canadian Census of Agriculture, thus land use outside the agricultural extent i.

The second indicator provides the percentage of farms in Canada that have a formal written Environmental Farm Plan, and the percent for which plans are under development.

What FAO does?

Aquaculture typically includes the cultivation of aquatic species, usually for commercial harvest, processing, sale and consumption. Aquaculture operations have been established in every Canadian province and in Yukon. Canada is well positioned to benefit from sustainable aquaculture. Continued active and responsive management is essential to ensure the health of ecosystems in which aquaculture takes place.

With the world's longest coastline and productive salt and freshwater resources, Canada has a reputation for safe, high-quality fish and seafood products produced in an environmentally sustainable manner. Environmental impacts are mitigated by management actions and regulations informed by dedicated aquaculture science in order to foster a sustainable and innovative industry that remains globally competitive.

This target for Canada is linked with the global Aichi Targets 4 and 7. Aquaculture management is an area of shared jurisdiction in Canada among the federal, provincial and territorial governments. Current initiatives include regulatory reform to increase transparency and coordination between these regulatory partners. In this context, the federal, provincial and territorial governments work with industry and other stakeholders, and with Aboriginal communities and groups to advance sustainable aquaculture management.

In addition, the National Aquaculture Strategic Action Plan Initiative provides a comprehensive strategic vision for the sector, which requires action on the part of all key players. To guide the pursuit of sustainable aquaculture development in Canada, the overall objective for environmental protection has been identified in this initiative as maintaining healthy and productive aquatic ecosystems as a condition for aquaculture development.

Fisheries and Oceans Canada publicly reports information on the sustainability of the sector and the environmental management regime under the Fisheries Act. Through its website , Fisheries and Oceans Canada also reports on aquaculture science activities, research results and peer-reviewed advice related to sustainable aquaculture.

Areas under aquaculture : Areas and sites such as freshwater ponds and lakes, bays and recycling facilities, land-based aquaculture farms and open ocean where aquatic organisms are cultivated, including finfish, molluscs, crustaceans and aquatic plants. Sustainable use : The use of components of biological diversity in a way and at a rate that does not lead to the long - term decline of biological diversity, thereby maintaining its potential to meet the needs and aspirations of present and future generations.

Convention on Biological Diversity. The proposed indicator for this target would describe how aquaculture management, incorporating science advice, reduces direct and indirect pressures on biodiversity and supports the sustainable use of aquatic resources. The Management of Canadian Aquaculture indicator , which is part of the Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators program, measures aquaculture operators' levels of compliance with environmental regulations set out under the Fisheries Act.

The approach to reporting on progress toward this target is adaptive and primarily reported through the Department of Fisheries and Oceans aquaculture public reporting under the Sustainable Aquaculture Program. Canada's fisheries provide a variety of socio-economic benefits, such as sustenance, employment, recreation, and access to traditional foods. However, where they occur, unsustainable fishing practices compromise biodiversity and the long-term well-being of fisheries. In order to ensure the future enjoyment of these benefits and the economic sustainability of commercial, recreational, and Aboriginal fisheries, it is important to protect and promote healthy ecosystems by avoiding destructive fishing practices, managing bycatch, recovering depleted stocks, and preventing overfishing.

This target for Canada is linked with the global Aichi Target 8. Canada is taking steps to ensure long-term sustainability of nationally managed fisheries by developing and implementing comprehensive fishery management plans supported by new policies and tools, monitoring, the best available science advice, and compliance and enforcement activities. The new policies and tools include those developed under the Sustainable Fisheries Framework SFF , which provides an overarching science-based policy framework for the sustainable management of Canadian fisheries.

The SFF is an adaptive framework; new policies and tools will be added over time to achieve the sustainable use of fisheries and evolve towards an ecosystem-based management approach of all fishing activity licensed or managed by Canada, including those outside of Canada's Exclusive Economic Zone. This will help ensure that overfishing is avoided, recovery plans and measures are in place for all depleted species, fisheries have no significant adverse impacts on threatened species and vulnerable ecosystems, and the impacts of fisheries on stocks, species and ecosystems are within safe ecological limits.

Progress will be defined as measured by the national Fishery Checklist. Ecosystem Approach for fisheries management : Management approach by which fisheries management decisions consider the impact of the fishery not only on the target species, but also on non-target species, seafloor habitats, and the ecosystems of which these species are a part. This approach also encourages management decisions to take into account changes in the ecosystem which may affect the species being fished. This includes the effects of climate and climate change, and the interactions of target fish stocks with predators, competitors, and prey species.

Under the ecosystem approach, fisheries management, decisions consider the needs and concerns of people who rely on and interact with the ecosystem. Both of the indicators for this target are currently reported on under the Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators initiative. Information on aquatic plants is not included. The second indicator, Sustainable fish harvest , is based on the number of major stocks harvested relative to approved levels. Water quality varies widely across Canada because of the country's diverse geography and the different ways in which people have developed the land around rivers and lakes and on the coast.

Surface and ground water in Canada is generally clean, however, it is sometimes locally or regionally polluted. Water quality is important for the maintenance of healthy lake, river and marine ecosystems. Clean water provides essential habitat for aquatic plants and animals, supports many commercial and industrial uses, and is at the heart of many recreational activities. Pollution enters water bodies in a number of ways, including industrial and municipal discharge, runoff, spills, and deposition of airborne pollutants. Certain nutrients are important for aquatic ecosystem health, but can become pollutants at elevated levels.

Phosphorus, for example, is a crucial nutrient for growth of plants and algae and a key regulator of the overall productivity of inland aquatic ecosystems and coastal watersheds, but elevated levels can be harmful to the health of freshwater ecosystems, negatively impacting fish and other wildlife, drinking water quality, swimming safety and the visual appearance of lakes. Lakes and rivers that are phosphorus-enriched have accelerated eutrophication and growth of aquatic plants and algae.

This can occur when artificial or natural substances, such as nitrates and phosphates are added to an aquatic system from sources such as detergents and fertilizers. In Canada, phosphorus concentrations between and rose in over 20 percent of the water bodies sampled, including some of the Great Lakes where, 20 years ago, regulations successfully reduced nutrient inputs. Severe algal blooms in Lake Winnipeg, Lake Simcoe and blooms of cyanobacteria in eastern Canadian lakes have been occurring in recent years, as well as re-emerging problems in Lake Ontario and Lake Erie, and in other Canadian water bodies.

There is a need to act now, as there may be a significant lag between improved practices and reduced eutrophication due to the potential for soils to store phosphorous and other potential pollutants for decades. In addition to ensuring the conditions required to support aquatic biodiversity, protecting Canada's water sources from excess pollutants is necessary to provide the essential ecosystem services that people depend on, particularly clean safe water for personal use as well as for many aspects of our social and economic activity.

Achieving this target will involve coordinating efforts to understand multiple sources and respond to the pollution of water bodies. Bilateral coordination between Canada and the United States will also be needed as the pollution and eutrophication of some Canadian waterways is heavily influenced by practices in the U. This target will aim to reduce pollution levels, including pollution from excess nutrients, in order to protect and enhance the quality of water so that it is clean, safe and secure for all Canadians and supports healthy ecosystems.

Eutrophication or hypertrophication : Also known as nutrient enrichment, eutrophication is the result of large amounts of nutrients being released into a water body leading to excessive amounts of aquatic plant growth. Over time, this excessive plant growth can naturally turn a lake into a bog and eventually into land.

Most often, the nutrient phosphorous has the greatest effect on eutrophication because it tends to be more limited within freshwater environments. However, some environments are nitrogen deficient and more greatly influenced by changing levels of nitrogen. The eutrophication process can be accelerated by the release of nutrients from human activities such as from fertilizers used in agriculture and in our homes.

This rapid transition is not beneficial for the fish and other organisms that live in lakes and have to cope with depleted oxygen levels due to the decomposition of plants, as well as changing biodiversity and species abundance. The first indicator compares average spring total phosphorus concentrations in the four Canadian Great Lakes to their water quality objectives to determine the status of phosphorus concentrations in offshore waters in each lake. The second indicator provides a measure of how frequently phosphorus concentrations exceed Quebec's water quality phosphorus guideline for the protection of aquatic life in the St.

Lawrence River. Increasing numbers of invasive species are reaching Canada bringing serious ecological and socio-economic consequences. There is a need to improve our understanding of the means by which such species are entering Canada, and to take action to prevent their entry and mitigate their impact should they become established. IAS are harmful species of plants, animals, and micro-organisms that have been relocated to environments outside of their natural past or present distribution and whose introduction or spread threatens the environment, the economy or society.

Some of the better-known examples in Canada include Dutch elm disease, green crab, zebra mussel, and emerald ash borer. Since IAS may have no natural enemies in their new environments, their populations can grow unchecked and have the potential to cause significant damage to the habitats and food sources of native species. In turn, these IAS may impact regional economies and communities that rely for their livelihoods on the ecosystems and species impacted.

IAS are introduced through intentional and unintentional human action by air, land and water pathways. The key to dealing with invasive species is to identify the pathways of introduction - the routes they take to spread to new areas - and cut them off.

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IAS often arrive as hitchhikers on imported goods, like fruit, as stowaways in transportation or on the bottom of ships, or disease in wildlife. A key goal of this invasive alien species target and Canada's Invasive Alien Species Strategy is to avoid the introduction and establishment of such species in future.

This target for Canada is linked with the global Aichi Target 9. Achieving the target will involve coordinating and building on existing national and regional efforts to understand and respond to alien species introductions. Provincial legislation and measures are also in place. This Strategy aims to minimize the risk of invasive alien species to the environment, economy, and society. One of the core components of the Strategy is cooperation among participating federal and provincial governments. Aboriginal governments, municipalities, and other stakeholders are also important contributors in responding to the challenges of invasive alien species.

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Invasive alien species councils, for example, established in 11 out of 13 provinces and territories, are multi-stakeholder bodies that play an important role in working with their partners to address the priorities of the Strategy, specifically in developing regional priorities and leveraging local actions to address invasive alien species. Establishment : The process of an alien species in a new habitat successfully producing viable offspring with a likelihood of continued survival.

Invasive alien species : An alien species whose introduction or spread threatens biological diversity, ecosystems, economies or human health. Introduction : The movement by human action, indirect or direct, of an alien species outside of its natural range past or present. This movement can be either within a country or between countries or areas beyond national jurisdiction.

Pest : Any species, strain or biotype of plant, animal or pathogenic agent injurious to plants or plant products. Priority species : Species that significantly impact biodiversity, present a high level of risk, and may be addressed in a cost effective manner. Priority pathway : Pathways that have a significant impact on biodiversity, present a high level of risk, and may be addressed in a cost effective manner.

The first two indicators for this target are part of the Canadian Environmental Sustainability Indicators CESI program, which provides data and information to track Canada's performance on key environmental sustainability issues, and are reported as part of the Invasive alien species in Canada indicators. The number of known new IAS includes all foreign IAS whether regulated or not by the federal government identified as having become established in Canada each year subsequent to the baseline date of January , and identifies the type regulated, non-regulated, unknown and name of the pathway that brought them to Canada, if known.

The percentage of federally regulated foreign IAS not established in Canada reports the number of regulated foreign IAS not established in Canada as a percentage of the total number of regulated foreign IAS from the start of that year. This indicator represents the success of preventing the establishment of foreign regulated IAS in Canada.

The number of intervention or management plans indicator aims to capture specific, confirmed actions or measures to be taken e. This could include plans developed in partnership with other levels of government or NGOs. The information relevant for reporting on the first two indicators relies on contributions from existing data collection activities, knowledge and networks.

Data for both indicators is included in one database and updated annually by each contributing department. For thousands of years, Aboriginal peoples in Canada have depended on the land and water and the resources that healthy ecosystems provide to meet their physical, social, cultural and spiritual needs. Many Aboriginal peoples continue to have an intimate cultural relationship with the landscape and the resources derived from the land and water. The customary use of biological resources, including such activities as hunting, fishing, trapping and gathering, is an important element of this relationship.

This customary use of biological resources may be exercised by Aboriginal communities under their law making authority on their resources. It may also be exercised by those communities having Aboriginal or Treaty rights to do so.