After-music: Poems

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As Vaughan wrote in one of his poems, the visual shape of the poem could act to lead the reader to the poem's meaning:. When first thy Eies unveil, give thy Soul leave To do the like; our Bodies but forerun The spirits duty. Like Herbert, Vaughan's poems require the reader to negotiate between the eye, the ear, and the understanding. This is particularly evident in an emblem poem like 'The Waterfall':. With what deep murmurs through times silent stealth Doth thy transparent, cool and watry wealth Here flowing fall, And chide, and call, As if his liquid, loose Retinue staid Lingring, and were of this steep place afraid, The common pass Where, clear as glass, All must descend Not to an end: But quickened by this deep and rocky grave, Rise to a longer course more bright and brave.

Here, Vaughan makes sound semantically resonant. Hence, assonance represents and encapsulates 'stealth' and 'wealth' respectively. However, it is not just sound but sight which is simultaneously represented in the poem. There here exists a recognisable incorporation of both aural and visual elements.

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In addition to the assonance and sibilance 'silent stealth' which aurally evokes the waterfall's 'deep murmurs', Vaughan uses alternating stanza length to visually evoke the 'flowing fall' of the waterfall's cascading 'liquid, loose Retinue'. The stanza beginning with 'Here flowing fall' is abruptly indented and curtailed in a way which pictorially represents the flowing undulations of a waterfall. This kind of facility with the poem's graphic elements is a debt Vaughan owed to Herbert. Even when Herbert's poems are not explicitly emblematic, he adopts, nevertheless, techniques derived from the pattern poem in order to foreground the simultaneously aural and visual nature of his writing.

In some fleeting instances, for example, Herbert manipulates line breaks and spacing in order to show, for example, 'my heart broken, as was my verse' 'Denial', The Church , or how spiritual suffering can be manifested bodily, or even textually:. Broken in pieces all asunder Lord hunt me not. This kind of breaking is evident in a more sustained way in a poem like 'Easter I '.

Although it is not a pattern poem, it uses shape to forge a thematic argument. Its bipartite structure essentially divides the work into two halves - regular, whole stanzas follow from the jagged, broken stanzas with which it opens. This division creates a visual progression from the broken to the whole which physically evokes its subject - the crucifixion and resurrection, in celebration of Easter.

Brokenness recalling the broken body of Christ which heightens the wonder of resurrection is forged on a local level through emblematically broken lines such as -. The syntactic conclusion of the opening - 'thy Lord is risen' - does not correspond with the line's conclusion as it segues into 'Sing his praise'. This phrase is not resolved and its abrupt division is augmented by its indentation into 'Without delays'. The result is a sequence in which sound, sight and syntax combine to achieve a unified effect. The line is broken on two levels - visual and syntactic.

This is physically emblematic of the brokenness which both precedes and heightens the resurrection with which Herbert's 'Easter I ' is concerned. This practice was adopted by Vaughan in similar structures, such as 'Happy those early dayes! Like Herbert, Vaughan uses the division of sight and syntax physically to evoke the displacement with which the poem is concerned.

Richard Crashaw, title page from Steps to the Temple London, The poems of Richard Crashaw are distinctive. They are also the only English Renaissance poems to represent the Catholic counter-Reformation. Crashaw's conversion to Catholicism may have been incited, in part, by his education. He was first a student at the Charterhouse, then at Pembroke College, Cambridge. Both institutions were noted in the seventeenth century for their Laudian Anglicanism which, like Catholicism, favoured both clerical hierarchy and liturgical ceremony.

Crashaw's attraction to the rituals and devotions of the Catholic faith is evident in his poetry. Its vivid metaphors are often grounded in continental, baroque motifs which include the infant Jesus, the wounds of the broken, crucified Christ and the sufferings of the Virgin Mary, the Mater Dolorosa. This was a familiar practice in the medieval spiritual tradition of affective piety or devotion. Affective piety - which appeals to faith through sense and consequently emotion - is often grounded in loving expressions of the humanity of Christ, particularly in highly visual emphases on the Nativity and the Crucifixion.

Crashaw's first and second collections of sacred poems - Steps to the Temple , - acknowledge Herbert's The Temple. However, they are very different in tone and temperament from Herbert's. Unlike Herbert, Crashaw's poems are often unbridled celebrations of nature.

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In Crashaw's poems, even secular objects such as 'darts' and 'nests' become means to religious expression. Consequently, Crashaw's poetic syntax was often highly as his poems were often premised on incorporation and synthesis. On the other hand, Herbert's poems were elegant and concise. Though Crashaw's poetry may differ markedly, in important respects, from the style and meaning of Herbert's, it bears, nevertheless, the inescapable influences of Herbert's work.

The extent and degree of Crashaw's allusions to Herbert - intentional or otherwise - is particularly evident in the opening to 'A Hymn to the Nativity':. Welcome all wonders in one sight!

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Eternity shut in a span. Summer in winter, Day in night.

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Heaven in earth, and God in man. Great little one! Whose all-embracing birth Lifts earth to heaven, stoops heav'n to earth. The stanza is essentially predicated on conjunction - 'all wonders in one'. On a lexical level, this principle of incorporation is reflected in its morphology, such as the compound 'all-embracing'. The hyphenated compound welds two elements - 'all' and 'embracing'.

This incorporative gesture reflects the unity of opposites - 'summer in winter', 'day in night' - which dominates the poem. These recurrent metaphors of paradoxical union are part of a figurative system which contains the theological argument of how 'God in man Lifts earth to heaven' and 'stoops heav'n to earth'. The poem is about the apparent disparity between man's persistent unworthiness of God and His salvation of man in spite of this. The break in the potential couplet that might have been forged between 'sight' and 'night' in lines 1 and 3 or between 'span' and 'man' in lines 2 and 4 is also evocative of this mismatch between the unity of 'heaven' and 'earth'.

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Whilst Crashaw could have made both lines couplet rhymes, he chooses, instead, to arrange them in terms of syntax i. He thus begins each new line when new syntax begins. Although Crashaw's poems are distinct from Herbert's in both religious and aesthetic terms, these lines are, nevertheless, highly reminiscent of Herbert's.

The most pervasive mark of Herbert's influence on Crashaw, however, is the latter's usual equation of poetry with song. Crashaw calls the poem a 'hymn', although it is not composed of music but words. Also, Crashaw uses musical forms to structure his poems. He inherits this practice from Herbert whose poems - such as 'Antiphon' and 'A Dialogue-Anthem' are effectively speech-songs. My music shall find thee, and ev'ry string Shall have his attribute to sing; That all together may accord in thee, And prove one God, one harmony 'The Thanksgiving', The Temple. Herbert's religious lyrics are significant for a number of reasons.

Firstly, poetry's essentially musical nature makes them i. The conceptual, philosophical and theological implications of music in Herbert's day were rooted in medieval conceptions of music. The writings of the philosopher Boethius often refer to how many people in the Middle Ages believed music to be a litmus test for the condition of one's soul. The purer one's soul, the more beautiful the music. One's soul both reflected and resonated with the music of the spheres. Musica mundana reflected musica humana.

This medieval idea survived in Renaissance theatre. In Shakespeare's Twelfth Night , for instance, the antagonist Malvolio cannot and does not appreciate song. Neither can The Merchant of Venice 's Shylock. Music was moral as much as it was aesthetic. To write a verse or two, is all the praise, That I can raise. Music, purity and goodness thus existed reciprocally in the Renaissance.

Since poems were often associated with music, Christian verse - particularly in a mode much like the Old Testament Psalms - became an ideal choice for didactic, contemplative and meditative purposes. This connection is one which is particularly marked for the critic Samuel Singer. In Das Nachleben der Psalmen or 'The Afterlife of the Psalms', Singer posits that the basis of the medieval religious lyric tradition was one founded entirely on the tradition of the Old Testament Psalms.

Whilst Douglas Gray has contested this argument, calling it an 'impossibly exaggerated claim', nevertheless Gray, too, asserts that the medieval religious lyric tradition is largely premised on are essentially abstractions and meditations of Biblical verses for ease of the lay-person. Herbert, 'the sweet singer of the Temple', was celebrated as a highly musical poet who 'rightly knew David's harpe'. This is readily attested by how easily his poems were set to hymns, some of which include settings by Isaac Watts.

Herbert's poems were often associated with both scripture and ecclesiastical music for a number of reasons. These reasons affected Crashaw to varying degrees and ends.

Relaxing Background Music,Poetry of Water〜心を鎮める音楽,いやしの音楽

These similarities are significant as the equation of music with spirituality - whilst alluded to - was not often made explicit in the period. Herbert's reverence for music was so deep that it altered his views on prayer. He viewed prayer as song itself - 'a kind of tune, which all things hear and fear' 'Prayer I '. Crashaw did likewise. The ancillary text which precedes 'Prayer', for instance, makes that poetic ' ode ' part of ' a little Prayer-book '.

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Music was inalienable from prayer. Herbert also equates music with flight. Herbert viewed music as a way to grasp spiritual enigmas. Herbert uses the musical triad, for instance, as an analogue for the Holy Trinity:. Or since all music is but three parts vied And multiplied; O let thy blessed Spirit bear a part, And make up our defects with his sweet art Herbert, 'Easter I '. Although Crashaw's poems were highly different in tone from Herbert's, both Crashaw and Herbert equated religious poetry with music and song in highly similar ways.

This is apparent in lines from Herbert's 'Praise I '. In it, poetic 'verse' is essentially synonymous with musical 'praise' and 'To write a verse or two, is all This equation is one also which he makes explicit the poem 'Virtue'. He equates both this music and death with revelation. Like its musical themes, the poem's structure is corresponding song-like. Each of the stanzas ends with a refrain; like a musical chorus, each of these stanzas concludes with the modal imperative 'must die'.

The tonality of the poem shifts at its 'coda' or close. The melancholy refrain modulates to a triumphant 'And chiefly live' like a musical tierce di picardie , the movement from a minor key to a major one often found in the music of Herbert's time. Like Herbert, Henry Vaughan, too, equates poetry - Crashaw's 'songs in the night' - with music. Nevertheless, the connection that Herbert forged between poetry and song is most evidently realised in the poems of Richard Crashaw.

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Whilst Herbert often asserts that verse and music are essentially synonymous, Crashaw subordinates speech to song. Crashaw speaks of how music is transcendent. This is encapsulated in the opening lines to 'A Hymn'. Singing is transcendent. However, a reading of the line pivots between two possible interpretations. Each of these readings is hinged on different ways of understanding the modal auxiliary verb 'can'. In the context of the line, 'can' modulates between its deontic sense and its dynamic sense. The deontic 'can' refers to what one is socially or morally obligated to do after an action has been authorised by a superior.

The dynamic 'can' refers to what one is capable of doing. Hence, in one sense, Crashaw 'can' circumvent speaking by singing because the verb 'sing' refers to an action which is not to speak. To 'sing' is not to speak. Thus, Crashaw plays on definitional lines - the explicit assertion that speech is not song results in an implicit suggestion that song surpasses speech. This modulation pivots on the deliberate ambiguities latent in 'can'.

In another sense - one which also affirms this one - Crashaw speaks of singing allows him to circumvent social obligations of what he 'can' or cannot do, in its deontic sense. Thus, he 'can' 'sing' of God's name because he is not socially obliged not to. Singing, hence, is a superior mode of communication to speech. Do the same cognitive mechanisms play a role in both art forms?

Omigie hypothesizes that empathy with an imagined human artist plays an important role. Listeners might feel sympathetically elated for the joyful events that led to writing a particular poem or song, or sympathetically saddened for the tragic ones. The intent descriptions, however, were carefully planned to sound highly positive e. The descriptions assigned to poems for one group of participants were assigned to pieces of music for another group, and the assignment of individual descriptions to individual excerpts varied among groups of participants as well, ensuring that the effect of the descriptions could be separated from the effect of the excerpts themselves.

If the description was positive, they thought the excerpt was happier, but if it was negative, they thought the same excerpt was sadder. Their capacity to imagine the expressive goals of the composer or author helped them engage emotionally with the music or the poetry. But an intriguing difference arose between the art forms.

People liked and were more moved by the music when they thought it had been written for some happy purpose, but they liked and were moved by the poetry when told it had been written with a darker intent.

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  5. Overall, they preferred music when they heard it as happy, but they preferred poetry when they heard it as sad. This research suggests that imagining the emotional circumstances of the composer or author can be an effective way of engaging expressively with a piece of art. It also suggests that the kind of empathy that seems most powerful varies according to the type of art form.

    Why did people sustain richer experiences when hearing music as happy but poetry as sad? Contribute your ideas in the comments. Omigie D. Music and literature: Are there shared empathy and predictive mechanisms underlying their affective impact? Frontiers in Psychology, 6, Margulis, E.

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